Knee Glossary

Arthroscope: a camera attached to a video monitor

Arthroscopy: noninvasive way to do surgery. A camera attached to video monitor is inserted through small incision.

Bursae: small fluid filled sacs providing lubricating surface between surfaces that need to move

Cartilage: Connective tissue that cushions the ends of bones and is found between bones - absorbs shock. Articular Cartilage is a smooth coating on the end of all bones that make up the knee joint. Meniscular Cartilage protects the articular cartilage and separates the bones of the knee. It is a spongy shock absorber.

Chondromalacia Patellae : chronic deterioration of the cartilage coating the back surface of the kneecap.(also called Lateral patella compression syndrome, anterior knee pain)

Extensor Muscle: Any muscle that causes the straightening of a limb.

Fascia : fibrous connective tissue covering, separating, or binding muscles and other soft structures of the body.

Femur: Thigh Bone

Hamstrings : Muscles of the back of thigh

Hip Abductors: Muscles of the outer hip, attached to the thighbone

Hip Adductors: Muscles of the inner thigh.

Iliotibial Band : A connective tissue that runs from your hip to your outer knee.

Knee Tracking: The kneecap (patella) slides over a groove (patellofemoral groove) on the lower end of the thighbone (femur) as your knee bends and straightens.

Ligament : Fibrous connective tissue that connects the bones and keeps joints stable and controls their range of motion.
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the center or the knee
posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the center or the knee
medial collateral ligament (MCL) outside the knee joint, inner side of leg
lateral collateral ligament (LCL) outside the knee joint, outer side of leg

MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging): diagnostic technique using magnetic fields, radio frequency, and a computer to produce detailed images of structures within the body. shows soft tissue (and bones) can also show the joint in motion

Patella: kneecap

Patellofemoral: The junction of the kneecap and thighbone

Patellofemoral groove : A groove on the lower end or the thigh bone (femur), which the kneecap (patella) slides over

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFS) or Runners Knee: Injury and pain caused by incorrect knee tracking - which results in the kneecap rubbing against the thighbone when moving. Can lead to Chondromalacia Patellae

Pronation (the inward roll of the foot as the arch collapses after the heel contacts the ground)

Quadriceps : Large Extensor Muscle of the front of thigh divided into four parts (quad means four) that unite in a single tendon at the knee.
rectus femoris: middle front division of the quadriceps
vastus lateralis: outer front division of the quadriceps
vastus intermedius: front division of the quadriceps
vastus medialis: inner front division of the quadriceps

Runners knee : see Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Tendon: fibrous connective tissue joining muscle to bone.

Tibia: shinbone

X-Ray: electromagnetic radiation used to produce images of bones.